PHA 351

General Pharmacology & System Pharmacology I

Definition and history of pharmacology. Scope and sub-divisions of pharmacology. Drug nomenclature. Methods and measurements in pharmacology. Drug development and evaluation. Biological assays. Clinical trials: roles of national and international regulatory authorities in the process of drug approval. Randomization, blinding, use of placebo and controlled experiments. Ethical principles of research on human subjects. Concept of pharmacogenetics and personalized medicine. Individual variations in drug response – genetics, age, gender. Measurement and evaluation of toxicity. Pharmacokinetics: routes of drug administration, kinetics of drug absorption, distribution, Blood-brain-barrier, placental barrier, drug interaction, biotransformation and elimination. Pharmacodynamics: mechanisms of drug action, drug receptors and non-receptor mediated drug action, signal transduction and second messengers, selectivity of drug action, factors affecting drug action in man, drug potency and efficacy, dose-response relationships, agonists, antagonists and their interactions with receptors. Drug dosage and factors modifying dosages/action. Therapeutic index (window). Rational use of drugs. Drug toxicity and adverse drug reactions.

Review of the anatomy and physiology of the autonomic and somatic nervous systems. General principles of neurohumoral transmission. Cholinergic transmission. Synthesis, storage and release of acetylcholine. Muscarinic and nicotinic actions of acetylcholine. Muscarinic receptor agonists and antagonists. Cholinesterases and anticholinesterases. Drugs used in Myasthenia gravis. Drugs affecting autonomic ganglia. Neuromuscular blocking agents. Adrenergic transmission; synthesis, storage, release and inactivation of noradrenaline. Neuronal and extraneuronal uptake mechanisms. Sympathomimetic amines. Adrenergic neuron blocking drugs. Drugs affecting the storage, release and disposition of neurotransmitters. Adrenoceptor blocking agents (alpha and beta blockers). Methods of studying neurotransmitters. Nitric oxide (NO) and non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) transmission.

Autocoids, Ocular, Respiratory, Gastrointestinal, Dermatological, and Renal Pharmacology Autocoid pharmacology: Biosynthesis and degradation. Histamine and antihistamine, 5 – hydoxytryptamine, its antagonists and drug therapy of Migraine, prostaglandins, leukotrienes and platelet activating factor.

Ocular Pharmacology: Miotics and mydriatics. Drugs used in glaucoma. Ophthalmological diagnostic agents. Wetting Agents, Tear Substitutes, Osmotic Agents. Vitamin A and the visual cycle.

Respiratory pharmacology: Asthma and anti-asthmatic drugs. Bronchodilators: β – adrenoceptor agonistsm, methyl xanthines and anti-muscarinics. Expectorants, mucolytics and antitussives. Drugs for airway obstruction: Cromolyn/nedocromil, inhaled steroids and leukotriene inhibitors. Commonly used inhaled corticosteroids. Drugs for Dyspnea.

Gastrointestinal pharmacology: Laxatives and purgatives. Antidiarrheal drugs. Oral rehydration therapy. Drugs used in reflux and peptic ulcer. Spasmolytics, emetics and anti-emetics. Drugs used in inflammatory bowel disease.

Dermatological Pharmacology: Pharmacologic Implications of Epidermal Structure. Photochemotherapy and sun screens. Drugs affecting hair growth. Treatment of hyperpigmentation.

Course Code
PHA 351
Pharmacy PharmD_Programme
Sumas University
300 Level, Undergraduate
Sumas University Lecturer
First Semester
3 Units